|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|301 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||301 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||453|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXXIII dynasty, 23|
|- Pharaoh||Ptolemy I Soter, 23|
|Ancient Greek era||119th Olympiad, year 4|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||己未年 (Earth Goat)|
2397 or 2190
— to —
庚申年 (Metal Monkey)
2398 or 2191
|Coptic calendar||−584 – −583|
|Ethiopian calendar||−308 – −307|
|- Vikram Samvat||−244 – −243|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2800–2801|
|Iranian calendar||922 BP – 921 BP|
|Islamic calendar||950 BH – 949 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2212 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||11/12 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||242–243|
−174 or −555 or −1327
— to —
−173 or −554 or −1326
Year 301 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Dictatorship of Corvus (or, less frequently, year 453 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 301 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- In the Battle of Ipsus in Phrygia, the armies of Antigonus, the ruler of Syria, Asia Minor, Phoenicia and Judea, and his son Demetrius Poliorcetes are defeated by the forces of Lysimachus and Seleucus. Antigonus is killed in the battle.
- Antigonus' defeat and death secures Cassander's control of Macedonia. Through this victory, Lysimachus is able to add the greater part of Asia Minor to his European possessions while Seleucus now controls most of Syria. However, Demetrius is able to keep a foothold in Greece.
- The southern part of Syria is occupied by Ptolemy.
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- Antigonus I Monophthalmus, Macedonian general under Alexander the Great who founded and became the first king of the Macedonian dynasty of the Antigonids (b. 382 BC)
- Aristobulus of Cassandreia, Greek historian (b. ca. 375 BC)